What is Metformin
This is an antidiabetic (type two diabetes) drug under the class called BIguanides. The main function is to reduce hepatic glucose fabrication in the presence of insulin. It is most indicated for overweight or obese clients whose weight control and dietary measures alone can't in anyway reduce their increased glucose in the body.
Mode of action
Metformin works by reducing the amount of glucose fabricated by your hepatic system, it also reduces the glucose absorbed from the gut by your body from the food you eat and lastly, it works by increasing the action of insulin in your body. Insulin acts as a hormone which helps flush excess glucose from the blood (intravascular) to the tissues (cells).
Once Metformin is ingested, it is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract with its final bioavailability being approximately 55%. Its intake with food slightly reduces and delays its absorption. It does not bound to plasma protein Albumin. The drug is not metabolized either rather it is excreted in Urine 90%. The Plasma elimination half-life is 6 hours while that of blood is 18 hours. The extended dose of Metformin reaches the peak from 4 - 8 hours after intake.
How To Use And Dosage
Metformin is available as a prescription-only drug which is available in the following formulations: As metformin hydrochloride tablets, they consist of 500 mg, 850 mg, and 1g while the extended release dose of metformin contains 500mg. It usually comes as a film coated 500mg metformin hydrochloride. In the composition, contains 390 mg metformin. It is a white tablet denoted 'A' on one side and '60' on the other. Metformin is taken with food to lower blood glucose level in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adults get 500 mg of metformin hydrochloride tablets Per Oral Twice a day (in the morning and evening) Most of the diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in obese patients with type two diabetes have reduced greatly when metformin hydrochloride is used as a first line diabetic therapy. This is evident when diet and weight control measures have failed. Unlike other antidiabetic drugs, metformin does not have a tendency to cause hypoglycemia hence it is a safe drug to use. It does not lead to weight gain as with other anti-diabetic drugs. Safe During Pregnancy - Metformin Hydrochloride tablets have been categorized as a pregnancy class B drug which makes them safe during pregnancy. Studies performed in animals have not shown any correlation with the drug and the fetus hence the drug has been categorized as Class B.
Common side effects of using metformin include Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhea, Stomach Upset, Metallic taste in the mouth and general body weakness. These signs might occur. It is not a usual occurrence though. However, if these symptoms persist to an extent that it affects your way of life, consult your doctor or pharmacist As soon as possible.There has been a tendency of diabetic drugs causing hypoglycemia. However, metformin does not cause hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia might occur if metformin is administered with other anti-diabetic medications. In such a case, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.In case you note any of the following side effects while on this medication, know that you are drifting to hypoglycemia. They include hunger, blurred vision, sweating, fast palpitations, tingling of hands and feet and dizziness. Always carry sweets or biscuits to counter such a case.
When you get Metformin, read the leaflet very careful before using the medication to at least get acquitted with what metformin is. Administer the drug through the oral route as directed by your doctor or pharmacist. You can be instructed to take it once, twice or thrice on a daily basis depending on your glucose level tendencies. While taking this medicine, drink lots of fluids unless otherwise instructed by your doctor or pharmacist. The dosage will be dependant on your medical condition, your response to pharmacologic therapy and other medications that you are using. To reduce the majority of side effects or adverse effects, your pharmacist or doctor might direct you to start the dose at a lower and slowly increase the dosage as days go by. Always follow the instructions carefully. As you understand, diabetes type 2 is a chronic condition thus taking medication regularly is recommended to at least benefit from it. If you are to take it every day at 7 am, 3 pm and 11 pm then do so very religiously adhering to the same time every day. If you are on another diabetic drug such as chlorpropamide, ensure you inform your doctor so as to consider either discontinuing it or use it until it ends before taking metformin. Some drugs have very fateful interactions and thus it's always good to ask for clarifications. Lastly, check your blood sugars often. To have a good record, set certain alarms on your phone which will act as a reminder. Remember to record so the doctor can know whether to raise the dose or reduce it.To avoid getting hypoglycemic while on medication, eat meals on a regular basis and ensure you never skip meals.When you feel you have the following symptoms, you are hyperglycemic (Have more sugar in your bloodstream) contact your doctor. It could be you skipped the medication or your dose needs to be increased. These symptoms include Acetone breath odor, tachycardia, polyuria, polydipsia and in the severe case, confusion and drowsiness.
Metformin as any other drugs interacts with certain drugs to bring out a negative effect. The following drugs should not be taken together with metformin. They include Calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine,Corticosteroids such as prednisolone, Phenytoin Sympathomimetics,Thiazides or other diuretics, Thyroid agents Estrogens and Hormonal contraceptives Isoniazid, Nicotinic acid, Phenothiazines.They might reduce the efficacy of metformin to control diabetes and you might develop hyperglycemia. Always monitor your glycemic control. In case you can't change the drug, then the metformin dose needs to be increased.Metformin may also face competition in its transport system at the renal tubules when used concomitantly with certain drugs such as morphine, digoxin, vancomycin, quinine, amiloride, cimetidine among others. This will increase metformin levels in the blood which might subsequently increase when the patient takes the next dose of metformin.
An overdose occurs if the patient takes an excess amount of the dosage prescribed in the prescription. To avoid this, kindly stick to the doctors prescription. An excess dose of metformin can cause lactic acidosis which is why the drug has a black box warning! In case you missed a dose, compensate it as soon as you remember!In case you take an overdose or have a friend who has taken an overdose or has signs of metformin toxicity, call 1-800-222-1222 which is the emergency poison helpline Metformin
Price is not that costly as compared to most diabetic drugs. It is the cheapest anti-seizure drug available. You can buy metformin hydrochloride tablets online on various sites which are accredited to sell drugs through their websites such as FairPriceRX.com Contraindications In some certain conditions, metformin is not supposed to be taken by the patient. In this case, a change of diabetic drug is plausible. These cases include:- When you have an allergic reaction or hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride or its ingredients- If you have an episode of acute metabolic acidosis which could be either diabetic ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis- In case your Glomerular Filtration Rate is 30 mls per minute and below, you are not supposed to take metformin.- In case you have any conditions that might alter the function of the kidneys such as dehydration, septic shock, severe infection and any type of shock, you should not take metformin.- In case you have a persistent or acute condition which could cause tissue hypoxia, you should not take metformin. Such conditions include Recent Myocardial Infarction, Respiratory Distress or Cardiac Distress or shock. - For those with an inadequate liver such as in hepatic insufficiency, alcohol intoxication or liver cirrhosis, metformin should not be the drug of choice for treating diabetes type two.In all of the above, consult your doctor on an alternative drug to use.